Alcohol pictorial health warning labels: the impact of self-affirmation and health warning severity



In this experimental human laboratory study, we examined whether enhancing self-affirmation among a population of drinkers reduces defensive reactions to health warnings and promote reactions related to behaviour change. We also examined how health warning severity influences these reactions. Participants (n=128) were randomised to a self-affirmation or control group. We tracked participants' eye movements and recorded self-reported responses to the health warnings (avoidance, reactance, effectiveness, susceptibility, and motivation to drink less), as well as self-efficacy to drink less. The study protocol was preregistered on the Open Science Framework (
Date made available4 Dec 2018
PublisherUniversity of Bristol

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