Exploring differences in tobacco health warning credibility and effectiveness



In this online experimental study, participants viewed 9 cigarette package health warnings with a 2 (smoking status: non-smoker, smoker) x 3 (health outcome: lung cancer, blindness, tooth and gum disease) x 3 (presentation format: text-only, moderately severe, highly severe) mixed-model design. Participants were non-smokers (n = 437) or current smokers (n = 436) who rated the believability and perceived effectiveness of each warning, and their perceived likelihood of contracting each of the three diseases. The study protocol was pre-registered on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/pt8sa/).
Date made available12 Mar 2018
PublisherUniversity of Bristol

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