Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughts (version 2)

  • Heidi Kreibich (Creator)
  • Kai Schröter (Creator)
  • Giuliano Di Baldassarre (Creator)
  • Anne F Van Loon (Creator)
  • Maurizio Mazzoleni (Creator)
  • Guta Wakbulcho Abeshu (Creator)
  • Svetlana Agafonova (Creator)
  • Amir Aghakouchak (Creator)
  • Hafzullah Aksoy (Creator)
  • Camila Alvarez-Garreton (Creator)
  • Blanca Aznar (Creator)
  • Laila Balkhi (Creator)
  • Marlies H. Barendrecht (Creator)
  • Sylvain Biancamaria (Creator)
  • Liduin Bos-Burgering (Creator)
  • Chris Bradley (Creator)
  • Yus Budiyono (Creator)
  • Wouter Buytaert (Creator)
  • Lucinda Capewell (Creator)
  • Hayley Carlson (Creator)
  • Yonca Cavus (Creator)
  • Anaïs Couasnon (Creator)
  • Gemma Coxon (Creator)
  • Ioannis Daliakopoulos (Creator)
  • Marleen C. de Ruiter (Creator)
  • Claire Delus (Creator)
  • Mathilde Erfurt (Creator)
  • Giuseppe Esposito (Creator)
  • Didier François (Creator)
  • Frédéric Frappart (Creator)
  • Jim E Freer (Creator)
  • Natalia Frolova (Creator)
  • Animesh K Gain (Creator)
  • Manolis Grillakis (Creator)
  • JordiOriol Grima (Creator)
  • Diego A. Guzmán (Creator)
  • Laurie S. Huning (Creator)
  • Monica Ionita (Creator)
  • Maxim Kharlamov (Creator)
  • Dao Nguyen Khoi (Creator)
  • Natalie Kieboom (Creator)
  • Maria Kireeva (Creator)
  • Aristeidis Koutroulis (Creator)
  • Waldo Lavado-Casimiro (Creator)
  • Hongyi Li (Creator)
  • Maria Carmen LLasat (Creator)
  • David MacDonald (Creator)
  • Johanna Mård (Creator)
  • Hannah Mathew-Richards (Creator)
  • Andrew McKenzie (Creator)
  • Alfonso Mejia (Creator)
  • Eduardo Mario Mendiondo (Creator)
  • Marjolein Mens (Creator)
  • Shifteh Mobini (Creator)
  • Guilherme Samprogna Mohor (Creator)
  • Viorica Nagavciuc (Creator)
  • Thanh Ngo-Duc (Creator)
  • Huynh Thi Thao Nguyen (Creator)
  • Pham Thi Thao Nhi (Creator)
  • Olga Petrucci (Creator)
  • Nguyen Hong Quan (Creator)
  • Pere Quintana-Seguí (Creator)
  • Saman Razavi (Creator)
  • Elena Ridolfi (Creator)
  • Jannik Riegel (Creator)
  • Md Shibly Sadik (Creator)
  • Nivedita Sairam (Creator)
  • Elisa Savelli (Creator)
  • Alexey Sazonov (Creator)
  • Sanjib Sharma (Creator)
  • Johanna Sörensen (Creator)
  • Felipe Augusto Arguello Souza (Creator)
  • Kerstin Stahl (Creator)
  • Max Steinhausen (Creator)
  • Michael Stoelzle (Creator)
  • Wiwiana Szalińska (Creator)
  • Qiuhong Tang (Creator)
  • Fuqiang Tian (Creator)
  • Tamara Tokarczyk (Creator)
  • Carolina Tovar (Creator)
  • Thi Van Thu Tran (Creator)
  • Marjolein H.J. van Huijgevoort (Creator)
  • Michelle T.H. van Vliet (Creator)
  • Sergiy Vorogushyn (Creator)
  • Thorsten Wagener (University of Potsdam) (Creator)
  • Yueling Wang (Creator)
  • Doris Wendt (Creator)
  • Elliot Wickham (Creator)
  • Long Yang (Creator)
  • Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini (Creator)
  • Philip J. Ward (Creator)
  • Heidi Kreibich (Contributor)



As the negative impacts of hydrological extremes increase in large parts of the world, a better understanding of the drivers of change in risk and impacts is essential for effective flood and drought risk management and climate adaptation. However, there is a lack of comprehensive, empirical data about the processes, interactions and feedbacks in complex human-water systems leading to flood and drought impacts. To fill this gap, we present an IAHS Panta Rhei benchmark dataset containing socio-hydrological data of paired events, i.e. two floods or two droughts that occurred in the same area (Kreibich et al. 2017, 2019). The contained 45 paired events occurred in 42 different study areas (in three study areas we have data on two paired events), which cover different socioeconomic and hydroclimatic contexts across all continents. The dataset is unique in covering floods and droughts, in the number of cases assessed and in the amount of qualitative and quantitative socio-hydrological data contained. References to the data sources are provided in 2023-001_Kreibich-et-al_Key_data_table.xlsx where possible. Based on templates, we collected detailed, review-style reports describing the event characteristics and processes in the case study areas, as well as various semi-quantitative data, categorised into management, hazard, exposure, vulnerability and impacts. Sources of the data were classified as follows: scientific study (peer-reviewed paper and PhD thesis), report (by governments, administrations, NGOs, research organisations, projects), own analysis by authors, based on a database (e.g. official statistics, monitoring data such as weather, discharge data, etc.), newspaper article, and expert judgement. The campaign to collect the information and data on paired events started at the EGU General Assembly in April 2019 in Vienna and was continued with talks promoting the paired event data collection at various conferences. Communication with the Panta Rhei community and other flood and drought experts identified through snowballing techniques was important. Thus, data on paired events were provided by professionals with excellent local knowledge of the events and risk management practices.
Date made available2023
PublisherGFZ Data Services
Geographical coverageSpatial coverage of the Panda Rhei Benchmark Dataset
Geospatial polygon-55.2457, 163.594, 70.9214, -138.75
  • The challenge of unprecedented floods and droughts in risk management

    Kreibich, H., Van Loon, A. F., Schröter, K., Ward, P. J., Mazzoleni, M., Sairam, N., Abeshu, G. W., Agafonova, S., AghaKouchak, A., Aksoy, H., Alvarez-Garreton, C., Aznar, B., Balkhi, L., Barendrecht, M. H., Biancamaria, S., Bos-Burgering, L., Bradley, C., Budiyono, Y., Buytaert, W., Capewell, L., & 10 othersCarlson, H., Cavus, Y., Couasnon, A., Coxon, G., Daliakopoulos, I., de Ruiter, M. C., Freer, J., Wagener, T., Wendt, D. E. & Di Baldassarre, G., 4 Aug 2022, In: Nature. 608, 7921, p. 80-86 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

    Open Access
    139 Citations (Scopus)

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