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Research interests

In the immune response to cancer, tumour-derived mutated peptides are recognised by T cells, central regulatory and cytolytic effectors of the immune system, through binding of the T cell receptor (TCR) to the MHC-presented peptides on the tumour cell surface. TCR signals are enhanced by co-stimulatory receptors such as CD2 and CD28, and suppressed by co-inhibitory receptors, five of which are most intensively studied: CTLA-4, PD-1, LAG-3, TIM-3 and TIGIT. Increased expression of inhibitory receptors in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes significantly limits their ability to eliminate cancer cells, thus allowing tumours to evade the immune response. Antibodies blocking co-inhibitory receptors or their ligands show great clinical promise in the treatment of various cancers through reactivation of an effective anti-tumour immune response. However, as autoimmune side effects are common and efficacy is variable more research into the mechanism of action of inhibitory receptors is required.


  • Immunology
  • T-cell signalling


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