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Personal profile

Research interests


My research uses advanced quantitative methods to examine the ethnic and religious penalties experienced by Muslims in the British labour market. 

Through longitudinal analysis, I critically examine what is known as the Muslim penalty. This is the statistical finding that Muslims experience the greatest faith penalty relative to any other religious group in the labour market. Specifically, using Understanding Society: The UK Longitudinal Household Panel Study, I undertake panel data analysis to offer a multifaceted study of the Muslim penalty which takes into account the heterogeneity of the group. In doing so, it acknowledges and responds to the ‘lack of comprehensive data [which is] hindering analysis of the barriers that Muslim people face in achieving equality of opportunity’ (Parliament. House of Commons. Women and Equalities Committee, 11 August 2016, p.47).

My research is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (National Productivity Investment Fund), and is supervised by Dr Saffron Karlsen and Dr Siobhan McAndrew.

Area of Research Interests

  • Ethnic and religious disadvantages in the British labour market, specifically in relation to Muslims
  • Economic inequality and social exclusion
  • Racism, the history of othering and Islamophobia
  • Applied social statistics using Stata and R
  • Longitudinal data analysis and multilevel modelling 

Teaching Experience

  • Social Identities and Divisions (core module, undergraduate)
  • Convincing Stories? Numbers as Evidences in the Social Sciences (Q-Step module, undergraduate)
  • Final Year Project Supervisor (Foundation Year students)

Conferences and Presentations

  • American Academy of Religion (AAR) Annual Meeting 2021 (Sociology of Religion Unit), Religion, Poverty, and Inequality: Contemplating Our Collective Futures (Texas, scheduled for Nov 2021)
  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion (SSSR) Annual Meeting 2021, Global and Comparative Perspectives on Religion (Portland, scheduled for Oct 2021)
  • Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies International Conference Identity and Transformation: Studying Lives in Times of Social Change (Vilnius, scheduled for Sep 2021)
  • The Centre of Islamic Studies, Muslims in UK and Europe Postgraduate Symposium 2021 (University of Cambridge/Zoom, June 2021)
  • Breaking Boundaries Conference 2021 (University of Cardiff/Zoom, scheduled for May 2021)
  • Centre for Multilevel Modelling Research Group (Bristol/Zoom, Apr 2021)
  • Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship: Brown Bag Lunch Seminar (Bristol/Zoom, Mar 2021)
  • 16th Annual 2020 CILIS Islamic Studies Postgraduate Conference (University of Melbourne/Zoom, Nov 2020)
  • UCL Quantitative Social Science Seminar Series (London/Zoom, May 2020)
  • Quantitative Spatial Science Research Group seminar (Bristol/Zoom, Apr 2020)
  • Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship’s 20th Anniversary Conference, Multiculturalism, Nationalism, Religions and Secularism (Bristol, Nov 2019)
  • Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies’ Fellows seminar (Oxford, May 2014)

Invited Talks

  • Leeds Social Science Institute (Leeds/Zoom, Jun 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ Race Disparity Audit Steering Group (London/Zoom, Jan 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ Impact Evaluation & Regression Analysis team (London/Zoom, Jan 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ analytical, policy, and labour market teams (London/Zoom, Dec 2020)
  • MEADFA Conference 2018 (Dubai, Jan 2018)
  • Global Citizenship Seminar 2017 organised by Henley & Partners (panel discussant) (Dubai, Oct 2017)
  • Economic ties between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East Seminar 2017 organised by Pinsent Masons LLP (panel discussant) (Dubai, Sep 2017)
  • Delivered talk on the economic implications of China’s Belt and Road policy for Dubai to multiple private and public organisations (Dubai, Aug 2016)

Other Writing/Public Engagement


  • ESRC Advanced Quantitative Methods Studentship (2019-2022)
  • Cumberland Lodge Scholarship (2020-2022)
  • SPAIS Virtual Conference Fund (2021)
  • Bristol Plus Award (2021)
  • Bristol Collegiate Research Society Conference Scholarship (2020)
  • PGR Development Fund awarded by Bristol Doctoral College, University of Bristol (2020)
  • Oxford Postgraduate Internship Scholarship (2014)
  • Research and Travel Award by Wolfson College, University of Oxford (2014)
  • The Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies Scholarship (2013)

Academic and Professional Background

  • MSc in Comparative Social Policy (University of Oxford, 2013)
  • MSc in Political Theory (LSE, 2010)
  • BSc (Hons) in Economics (Class I) (Brunel University, 2009)

I have previous experience in the private sector, having worked as an Associate at JP Morgan Chase in London, and as a Senior Economic and Policy Analyst in the Middle East before deciding to refocus my career and specialise in quantitative social science

I am trilingual in English, French, and Arabic.


  • Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship
  • Migration Mobilities Bristol
  • American Academy of Religion (AAR)
  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion (SSSR)
  • Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
  • Centre for Multilevel Modelling


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