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Personal profile

Research interests


I am an interdisciplinary quantitative social scientist. My research focuses on ethnic and religious labour market inequalities in Britain. Arguing that we need to advance the conversation beyond unidimensional discussions about religious and ethnic inequality in job quantity (i.e. access to work), my work principally focuses on investigating ethno-religious disparities in job quality. I seek to contribute to the improvement of worker wellbeing by using advanced quantitative methods, including complex longitudinal survey data analysis, index creation & measurement, multilevel modelling and social network analysis.

My PhD, 'A multifaceted view of the Muslim penalty in Britain: investigating differences in job quantity and job quality using survey data analysis', was funded by the ESRC.

My research has been published in top academic journals, including Ethnic and Racial Studies. I also have a proven track record of impact, my research having garnered media attention in leading national and international outlets as well as having been referenced in the European Islamophobia Report 2022.

I am trilingual in English, Arabic and French, and have extensive experience speaking at international academic conferences and business forums. This has helped me build successful networks and relationships across international academic, professional and research communities.

Prior to joining academia, I worked in the private sector in the UK and abroad. Combined, I have over 10 years of strategic advisory and research experience, including advising government leadership, multinationals, and semi-government organisations.

Area of Research Interests

  • Ethnic and religious disadvantages in the British labour market, specifically in relation to the Muslim penalty
  • Longitudinal data analysis and multilevel modelling 
  • Measurement and index development
  • Complex survey analysis
  • Applied social statistics using Stata (primary) and R
  • Economic inequality and social exclusion
  • Racism, the history of othering and Islamophobia

Teaching Experience

  • Social Identities and Divisions (core module, undergraduate)
  • Convincing Stories? Numbers as Evidences in the Social Sciences (Q-Step module, undergraduate)
  • Final Year Project Supervisor (Foundation Year students)

Peer Reviewed Publications

Conferences Presentations

  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion (SSSR) Annual Meeting 2022, Religion, Racial Unrest and Pandemics (Baltimore, Nov 2022)
  • MEAD Conference 2022, Migration, Race, Ethnicity and Diversity in Post-Brexit Pandemic Britain (Cardiff, Jul 2022)
  • American Academy of Religion (AAR) Annual Meeting 2021 (Sociology of Religion Unit), Religion, Poverty, and Inequality: Contemplating Our Collective Futures (Texas, Nov 2021)
  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion (SSSR) Annual Meeting 2021, Global and Comparative Perspectives on Religion (Portland, Oct 2021)
  • Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies International Conference Identity and Transformation: Studying Lives in Times of Social Change (Vilnius, Sep 2021)
  • The Centre of Islamic Studies, Muslims in UK and Europe Postgraduate Symposium 2021 (University of Cambridge, June 2021)
  • Cardiff University, Breaking Boundaries Conference 2021 (Cardiff, May 2021)
  • University of Melbourne 16th Annual 2020 CILIS Islamic Studies Postgraduate Conference (Melbourne, Nov 2020)
  • Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship’s 20th Anniversary Conference, Multiculturalism, Nationalism, Religions and Secularism (Bristol, Nov 2019)

Invited Talks

  • University of Bristol, Festschrift Conference in Honour of Professor Tariq Modood (Speaker) (Bristol, Sep 2022)
  • Cumberland Lodge, Shaping Social Mobility: Education & Employment (Chair) (Windsor, Mar 2022)
  • Doha Institute for Graduate Studies Seminar Series, Youth, Fragility and Risks in MENA Region (Speaker) (Doha, Feb 2022)
  • Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, PEMIKIR Distinguished Leaders Lecture Series (Speaker) (Kelantan, Dec 2021)
  • Leeds Social Science Institute Seminar Series (Speaker) (Leeds,  Jun 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ Race Disparity Audit Steering Group (Speaker) (London, Jan 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ Impact Evaluation & Regression Analysis Group (Speaker) (London, Jan 2021)
  • Department of Work and Pensions’ analytical, policy, and labour market teams (Speaker) (London, Dec 2020)
  • Middle East and Africa Duty Free Association Annual Conference 2018 (Speaker) (Dubai, Jan 2018)
  • Henley & Partners, Challenges Affecting Global Mobility (Discussant) (Dubai, Oct 2017)
  • Pinsent Masons LLP, The Economic Ties Between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East (Discussant) (Dubai, Sep 2017)
  • Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies’ Fellows seminar (Speaker) (Oxford, May 2014)

Research in the Media

  • Research featured as ‘read of the day’ in The Bridge Initiative’s Today in Islamophobia newsletter (Georgetown University)  on 23 Aug 2022 and 18 Jul 2022.
  • University of Bristol Press Release about my research findings on the Muslim penalty (19 Jul 2022).
  • Research covered in a number of mini bitesize videos on the Islam Channel and the Muslim Women Network
  • In-depth interview on the Muslim penalty in the UK labour market on the Islam Channel (2.2 m viewers in 2021).
  • Research featured (both online and in print) in The Guardian, one of the UK’s leading national newspapers. My research has also been covered in international news outlets, including in Australia, KSA, Morocco, Turkey, the UAE and others.
  • Podcast: Planned and led podcast conversation with Dr Valentina Di Stasio entitled, Ethnicity & Religion in Recruitment (Apr 2022).

Impact and Public Engagement


  • ESRC Advanced Quantitative Methods Studentship (Mar 2019-Jun 2022)
  • University of Cardiff PhD Bursary (Jun 2022)
  • Cumberland Lodge Fellowship (Sep 2020-Jun 2022)
  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion Student Travel Grant (May 2022)
  • ESRC Research Training and Support Grant (Jul 2021)
  • University of Bristol Alumni Travel Grant (Jul 2021)
  • SPAIS Virtual Conference Fund (Apr 2021)
  • Bristol Plus Award (Mar 2021)
  • Bristol Collegiate Research Society Conference Scholarship (Nov 2020)
  • PGR Development Fund Award  (Jul 2020)
  • Oxford Postgraduate Internship Scholarship (Jun 2014)
  • Wolfson College Research and Travel Award (Apr 2014)
  • The Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies Scholarship (Sep 2013-Sep 2014)

Academic Background

  • PhD in Advanced Quantitative Methods (University of Bristol)
  • Diploma in Islamic Studies (iSyllabus)
  • MSc in Comparative Social Policy (University of Oxford)
  • MSc in Political Theory (LSE)
  • BSc (Hons) in Economics (Class I) (Brunel University)


  • English
  • Arabic
  • French


  • American Academy of Religion (AAR)
  • British Sociological Association (BSA) 
  • Centre for Multilevel Modelling (CMM)
  • Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship
  • Migration Mobilities Bristol (MMB)
  • Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS)
  • Society for the Scientific Study of Religion (SSSR)


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