Personal profile

Research interests

Over the last 35 years I have worked on: Theory and politics of racism, racial equality, multiculturalism and secularism, with especial reference to British Asian Muslims; ethnic identities, national identities and the 'second generation'; ethnic disadvantage and progress in employment and education; comparisons within and between Western Europe and North America; the politics of being Muslim in the West. The topics I am currently most focused on are the political theory and sociology of multiculturalism, interculturalism and secularism; and on Islamophobia.

I was the Bristol Director of the Leverhulme Programme on Migration and Citizenship, with UCL, which consisted of 8 projects running between 2003-09. With Anna Triandafyllidou I led EMILIE: A European Approach to Multicultural Citizenship (with 8 EU partners), an EU 6th Framework project (2006-09) and we followed this up with a 15 countries project, Accept Pluralism: Tolerance, Pluralism and Social Cohesion (2010-2013). I worked on a project with Dr Therese O’Toole, Muslim Participation in Contemporary Governance, funded by the AHRC (2010-13). During 2010-11 I had a Fellowship from the AHRC to work on a book on Secularism and the Accommodation of Muslims in Western Europe, which I developed further on during my Robert Schuman Fellowship at the European University Institute, 2013-2015.

I have held over 40 grants and consultancies, have over 35 (co-)authored and (co-)edited books and reports and over 350 articles and chapters. I  was awarded a MBE for services to social sciences and ethnic relations in 2001, made a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences (UK) in 2004 and elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2017. In 2022 I was ranked in the top 20 UK cited scholars in Politics, Law, Sociology and Social Policy combined. I served on the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, the National Equality Panel, and the Commission on Religion and Belief in British Public Life. My latest books include Essays on Secularism and Multiculturalism (2019), Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea (2nd ed; 2013); and as Special Issues co-editor, with T. Sealy, Beyond Euro-Americancentric Forms of Racism and Anti-racism (Political Quarterly, 2022) and Global comparative analysis of the governance of religious diversity (Religion, State and Society, 2022). I have a You Tube Channel and my website is

As I am on flexi-retirement, I am only accepting new Phd students and invitations to publish or join projects on my recent and current work in the following three areas, with a focus on W. Europe, N. America, MENA and Asia:

  1. Political theory and political sociology of multiculturalism, interculturalism and national identity, including discourses, laws and policies and their reform
  2. Political theory and political sociology of secularism and the governance of religious diversity, including discourses, laws and policies and their reform
  3. Theory and sociology of cultural racism, especially Islamophobia, and ethnic capital and social mobility; especially in relation to education and employment.

For further details and updates, see: and

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Structured keywords and research groupings

  • SPAIS Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship


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