There has been growing concern about age and gender bias in clinical trials. A number of studies have shown that women and older people are significantly underrepresented in the range of research projects that generate medical knowledge. Thus far, most of this work has been done in the US. This study will be the first systematic attempt to explore these issues in the UK. A team of epidemiologists, a social scientist (Lesley Doyal) and an ethicist will be working to identify any potential bias, to explore the reasons for it and to assess what impact (if any) it has on the type of knowledge produced. The project will also explore the ethical implications of any findings.