18. Chemistry of the Lower Mantle

Daniel Frost, Robert C Myhill

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in a book

11 Citations (Scopus)
901 Downloads (Pure)


This chapter summarizes the arguments for and against large-scale chemical differentiation of the mantle and examines the variations in mineral chemistry that need to be accounted for when placing constraints on the compositional and thermal structure of the lower mantle using seismic velocity observations. Various lines of evidence have been used to argue that the lower mantle is chemically distinct in major elements from the upper mantle. One of the few approaches that may clarify this would be to compare observed seismic velocities with estimates computed from mineral physical models. Building a realistic model for the effects of composition on the seismic velocities of lower mantle minerals remains a key goal in mineral physics. The dominant lower mantle minerals are all solid solutions. An important aspect of measured bridgmanite Fe3+ contents is that they appear to be nominally independent of oxygen fugacity.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDeep Earth
Subtitle of host publicationPhysics and Chemistry of the Lower Mantle and Core
Place of PublicationHoboken, NJ
PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781118992487
ISBN (Print)9781118992470
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2016

Publication series

NameGeophysical Monograph Series
PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
ISSN (Print)0065-8448


  • bridgmanite
  • lower mantle
  • mineral chemistry
  • mineral physics
  • oxygen fugacity
  • seismic velocity


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