Objectives: To determine if dogs with acute polyradiculoneuritis have lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 concentration compared to a control group of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case–control study of 21 dogs with acute canine polyradiculoneuritis and 21 control dogs with idiopathic epilepsy matched for year and season of presentation from a referral hospital population in the UK. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 was compared between groups using Student's t-test. Results: Dogs with acute canine polyradiculoneuritis had significantly lower (P=0·033) serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 concentration (87·1 nmol/L ±55·4 nmol/L) compared to a control group with idiopathic epilepsy (113 nmol/L ±66·3 nmol/L). Clinical Significance: The cause and clinical significance of the altered vitamin D status in dogs with acute polyradiculoneuritis are not clear and require further investigation. Our findings pave the way for improved understanding of acute canine polyradiculoneuritis and, potentially, improved clinical management, if a causal role for 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 is defined.