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4D sequential actuation: Combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry in hydrogels

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Original languageEnglish
Article number10LT02
Number of pages9
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number10
Early online date16 Sep 2016
DateAccepted/In press - 19 Aug 2016
DateE-pub ahead of print - 16 Sep 2016
DatePublished (current) - Oct 2016


The programmable sequential actuation of two-dimensional hydrogel membranes into three-dimensional folded architectures has been achieved by combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry; this methodology permits the programmed evolution of complex architectures triggered through localized out-of-plane deformations. In our study we describe a soft actuator which utilizes ionoprinting of iron and vanadium, with the selective reduction of iron through a mild reducing agent, to achieve chemically controlled sequential folding. Through the optimization of solvent polarity and ionoprinting variables (voltage, duration and anode composition), we have shown how the actuation pathways, rate-of-movement and magnitude of angular rotation can be controlled for the design of a 4D sequential actuator.

    Research areas

  • Hydrogels, Ionoprinting, Actuators, Sequential Actuation, Selective Redox

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    Licence: CC BY


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