5-HT 2A and 5-HT 2C receptor antagonism differentially modulate reinforcement learning and cognitive flexibility: behavioural and computational evidence

Mona El Sayed Hervig, Katharina Zühlsdorff*, Sarah F. Olesen, Benjamin Phillips, Tadej Božič, Jeffrey W. Dalley, Rudolf N. Cardinal, Johan Alsiö, Trevor W. Robbins

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

    Abstract

    Rationale: Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behaviour in response to a changing environment, is disrupted in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive–compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. Evidence suggests that flexibility, which can be operationalised using reversal learning tasks, is modulated by serotonergic transmission. However, how exactly flexible behaviour and associated reinforcement learning (RL) processes are modulated by 5-HT action on specific receptors is unknown. Objectives: We investigated the effects of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism on flexibility and underlying RL mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-six male Lister hooded rats were trained on a touchscreen visual discrimination and reversal task. We evaluated the effects of systemic treatments with the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR antagonists M100907 and SB-242084, respectively, on reversal learning and performance on probe trials where correct and incorrect stimuli were presented with a third, probabilistically rewarded, stimulus. Computational models were fitted to task choice data to extract RL parameters, including a novel model designed specifically for this task. Results: 5-HT2AR antagonism impaired reversal learning only after an initial perseverative phase, during a period of random choice and then new learning. 5-HT2CR antagonism, on the other hand, impaired learning from positive feedback. RL models further differentiated these effects. 5-HT2AR antagonism decreased punishment learning rate (i.e. negative feedback) at high and low doses. The low dose also decreased reinforcement sensitivity (beta) and increased stimulus and side stickiness (i.e., the tendency to repeat a choice regardless of outcome). 5-HT2CR antagonism also decreased beta, but reduced side stickiness. Conclusions: These data indicate that 5-HT2A and 5-HT2CRs both modulate different aspects of flexibility, with 5-HT2ARs modulating learning from negative feedback as measured using RL parameters and 5-HT2CRs for learning from positive feedback assessed through conventional measures.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalPsychopharmacology
    DOIs
    Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © The Author(s) 2024.

    Keywords

    • 5-HT receptors
    • Cognitive flexibility
    • Punishment learning
    • Reinforcement learning
    • Reward learning
    • Stickiness

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