Transient Neonatal Diabetes (type 1) is the commonest cause of diabetes presenting in the first week of life. The majority of infants recover by 3 months of age but are predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes in later life. It is associated with low birth weight but rapid catch up by 1 year of life. The condition is usually due to genetic or epigenetic aberrations at an imprinted locus on chromosome 6q24 and can be sporadic or inherited. Early diagnosis alters medical treatment strategies and differentiates it from other types of early onset diabetes. In some individuals, diabetes may be the initial presentation of a more complex imprinting disorder due to recessive mutations in the gene ZFP57 and may be associated with other developmental problems.