A comprehensive work package for energy storage systems as a means of frequency regulation with increased penetration of photovoltaic systems

Zhi Xuan Tang, Yun Seng Lim, Stella Morris*, Jia Liang Yi, Padraig F. Lyons, Phil C. Taylor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Grid frequency deviation occurs due to the power mismatch and is corrected by a series of control actions carried out by the generators. At present, the correction of the frequency deviation is limited by the ramp rates of generators, which depend on the inertia of their rotating masses. Under the increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources, the task of frequency regulation becomes more demanding in terms of response times due to the frequent power mismatches and reduction of system inertia. An energy storage system (ESS) can be an effective means of regulating the frequency due to its general fast response characteristics. A comprehensive work package is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and Matpower to study how ESS can handle the rapid changes of frequency continuously within a specified window of its state of charge (SOC). This paper includes an IEEE 24-Bus grid network modeling, the sizing of ESS and also proposes ESS controllers with offset control algorithms as the sustainable solution for frequency regulation. As such, the modularity design of the test system allows various types of ESS or loads to be tested. The locations for ESS to be placed on the network are also identified for the best frequency regulation response without causing any grid voltage violations. Meanwhile, the scenarios of high penetration of photovoltaic systems and undersized ESS are also investigated. The results indicate that ESS is able to maintain the grid frequency under the intermittency of photovoltaic systems continuously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-207
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Early online date14 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to extend their gratitude to the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water for funding this project through the scheme of AAIBE.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Energy storage system (ESS)
  • Frequency regulation
  • Locations of ESS
  • Offset control algorithm
  • Renewable energy


Dive into the research topics of 'A comprehensive work package for energy storage systems as a means of frequency regulation with increased penetration of photovoltaic systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this