A General Arc-Segment Element for Three-Dimensional Thermal Modeling

Nick Simpson, Rafal Wrobel, Phil Mellor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

17 Citations (Scopus)


This paper demonstrates the benefits of a generalized arc-segment lumped parameter thermal equivalent circuit representation that can be used in the 3-D thermal modeling of transformers, wound passive components, and electrical machines. The arc-segment is particularly suited to modeling stator/rotor teeth and end-windings. Commonly used two-resistor lumped parameter thermal networks do not accurately account for internal heat generation, which is essential for accurate temperature prediction. In contrast, the use of a T-network formulation can accurately cater for internal heat generation along with material anisotropy. The element formulation is verified numerically and experimentally using 2-D and 3-D finite element analysis and through the thermal analysis of a power inductor.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7006404
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2014


  • 3-D thermal equivalent circuit
  • general arc-segment
  • lumped parameter

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