A method for the preparation of chicken liver pate that reliably destroys Campylobacters

Mike Hutchison, Dawn Harrison, R I Richardson, Monika A Tchorzewska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of
chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4652-4669
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015


  • Campylobacter
  • food safety
  • pate
  • effective cooking
  • critical control point
  • sensory

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