We propose a multicue gaze prediction framework for open signed video content, the benefits of which include coding gains without loss of perceived quality. We investigate which cues are relevant for gaze prediction and find that shot changes, facial orientation of the signer and face locations are the most useful. We then design a face orientation tracker based upon grid-based likelihood ratio trackers, using profile and frontal face detections. These cues are combined using a grid-based Bayesian state estimation algorithm to form a probability surface for each frame. We find that this gaze predictor outperforms a static gaze prediction and one based on face locations within the frame.
|Translated title of the contribution||A multicue Bayesian state estimator for gaze prediction in open signed video|
|Pages (from-to)||39 - 48|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Multimedia|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2009|
Bibliographical notePublisher: IEEE
Rose publication type: Journal article
Sponsorship: The work of SJC Davies was supported
by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
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- face detection
- gaze prediction
- video coding