The new neopterygian fish taxon Luoxiongichthys hyperdorsalis gen. et sp. nov. is established on the basis of five specimens from the second member of the Guanling Formation (Anisian, Middle Triassic) from Daaozi Quarry, Luoping, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The new taxon is characterized by the following characters: triangular body outline with a distinct apex located between skull and dorsal fin; free maxilla; slender preopercular almost vertical; three suborbitals; at least eight strong branchiostegals with tubercles and comb-like ornamentation on the anterior margin; clavicles present; two postcleithra; ganoid scales covered by tubercles and pectinate ornamentation on the posterior margin with peg-and-socket structure; hemiheterocercal tail slightly forked. Comparison with basal actinopterygians reveals that the new taxon has parasemionotid-like triangular symplectics, but a semionotid opercular system. Cladistic analysis suggests that this new genus is a holostean, and either a basal halecomorph or basal semionotiform.