A novel three-dimensional (3-D) ray-tracing model capable of supporting detailed representation of the indoor environment, as well as external building structures, is presented in this paper. The developed algorithm uses a hybrid imaging technique where the two-dimensional (2-D) image generations in vertical and horizontal planes are combined to produce 3-D paths. It also employs the concept of “illumination zones” of the images which greatly simplifies the image map and allows the evaluation of complex indoor scenarios. In order to investigate the accuracy of the presented model, comparisons of predictions with narrow-band and wide-band measurements are performed in line-of-sight (LOS), non-LOS (NLOS), and deep shadow areas, both for co- and cross-polarized antennas. The analysis shows that accurate power predictions can be achieved for both antenna polarizations with rms errors less than 7 dB, even when long sections of the test route are in deep shadow areas. There is a trend agreement between the simulated and measured channel impulse responses, while the rms delay spread in NLOS areas is predicted with less than 5-ns rms error (or better than 13% normalized mean error). The paper provides an insight into the real and the modeled radio channel.
- radiowave propagation
- ray tracing
- electromagnetic wave polarisation