A quantification of 3D directional spread from small-scale fading analysis

A Pal, MA Beach, AR Nix

Research output: Working paper

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The terms "angular spread" and "multipath richness" are frequently used in literature in reference to the directional spread of the multipath energy arriving at the receiver. Although its magnitude is fundamental to the performance of spatial diversity antenna arrays, current literature falls short of providing a precise mathematical definition for directional spread when an arbitrary 3-D directional distribution is considered. In this paper, a quantification of directional spread that is applicable for arbitrary energy distributions of multipath rays/clusters in the 3-D directional domain has been proposed from analysis of second order statistics of small-scale fading. The proposed metrics overcome the limitations of the conventional RMS angular spread metric
Original languageEnglish
Pages8 p
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005

Publication series

NameCOST 273
NameTD (05) 096

Bibliographical note

Additional information: A paper presented to a Post-Project Meeting of COST 273 : Towards Mobile Broadband Multimedia Networks, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 10-11, 2005

Sponsorship: Arindam Pal would like to thank ORS UK and the University of Bristol for the postgraduate scholarship

Contributor: European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (EURO-COST)


  • antenna arrays
  • multipath


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