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A workplace-based intervention to increase levels of daily physical activity: the Travel to Work cluster RCT

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A workplace-based intervention to increase levels of daily physical activity : the Travel to Work cluster RCT. / Audrey, Suzanne; Fisher, Harriet; Cooper, Ashley; Gaunt, Daisy; Metcalfe, Chris; Garfield, Kirsty; Hollingworth, William; Procter, Sunita; Gabe-Walters, Marie; Rodgers, Sarah; Gillison, Fiona ; Davis, Adrian; Insall, Philip .

In: Public Health Research, Vol. 7, No. 11, 05.2019.

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Audrey, Suzanne ; Fisher, Harriet ; Cooper, Ashley ; Gaunt, Daisy ; Metcalfe, Chris ; Garfield, Kirsty ; Hollingworth, William ; Procter, Sunita ; Gabe-Walters, Marie ; Rodgers, Sarah ; Gillison, Fiona ; Davis, Adrian ; Insall, Philip . / A workplace-based intervention to increase levels of daily physical activity : the Travel to Work cluster RCT. In: Public Health Research. 2019 ; Vol. 7, No. 11.

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@article{480022f15fd2437496bb0c5f3ca65252,
title = "A workplace-based intervention to increase levels of daily physical activity: the Travel to Work cluster RCT",
abstract = "Background There may be opportunities for working adults to accumulate recommended physical activity levels (≥ 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes throughout the week) during the commute to work. Systematic reviews of interventions to increase active transport indicate that studies are predominantly of poor quality, rely on self-report and lack robust statistical analyses. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost and consequences of a behavioural intervention to increase walking during the commute to work. Design A multicentre, parallel-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial incorporating economic and process evaluations. Physical activity outcomes were measured using accelerometers and GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers at baseline and the 12-month follow-up. Setting Workplaces in seven urban areas in south-west England and south Wales. Participants Employees (n = 654) in 87 workplaces. Interventions Workplace-based Walk to Work promoters were trained to implement a 10-week intervention incorporating key behaviour change techniques. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the daily number of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included MVPA during the commute, overall levels of physical activity and modal shift (from private car to walking). Cost–consequences analysis included employer, employee and health service costs and consequences. Process outcomes included barriers to, and facilitators of, walking during the daily commute. Results There was no evidence of an intervention effect on MVPA at the 12-month follow-up [adjusted difference in means 0.3 minutes, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) –5.3 to 5.9 minutes]. The intervention cost was on average, £181.97 per workplace and £24.19 per participating employee. In comparison with car users [mean 7.3 minutes, standard deviation (SD) 7.6 minutes], walkers (mean 34.3 minutes, SD 18.6 minutes) and public transport users (mean 25.7 minutes, SD 14.0 minutes) accrued substantially higher levels of daily MVPA during the commute. Participants who walked for ≥ 10 minutes during their commute were more likely to have a shorter commute distance (p < 0.001). No access to a car (p < 0.001) and absence of free workplace car parking (p < 0.01) were independently related to walking to work and using public transport. Higher quality-of-life scores were observed for the intervention group in a repeated-measures analysis (mean 0.018, 95{\%} CI 0.000 to 0.036; scores anchored at 0 indicated ‘no capability’ and scores anchored at 1 indicated ‘full capability’). Conclusions Although this research showed that walking to work and using public transport are important contributors to physical activity levels in a working population, the behavioural intervention was insufficient to change travel behaviour. Broader contextual factors, such as length of journey, commuting options and availability of car parking, may influence the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to change travel behaviour. Further analyses of statistical and qualitative data could focus on physical activity and travel mode and the wider determinants of workplace travel behaviour.",
author = "Suzanne Audrey and Harriet Fisher and Ashley Cooper and Daisy Gaunt and Chris Metcalfe and Kirsty Garfield and William Hollingworth and Sunita Procter and Marie Gabe-Walters and Sarah Rodgers and Fiona Gillison and Adrian Davis and Philip Insall",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
doi = "10.3310/phr07110",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Public Health Research",
issn = "2050-4381",
publisher = "NIHR Journals Library",
number = "11",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - A workplace-based intervention to increase levels of daily physical activity

T2 - the Travel to Work cluster RCT

AU - Audrey, Suzanne

AU - Fisher, Harriet

AU - Cooper, Ashley

AU - Gaunt, Daisy

AU - Metcalfe, Chris

AU - Garfield, Kirsty

AU - Hollingworth, William

AU - Procter, Sunita

AU - Gabe-Walters, Marie

AU - Rodgers, Sarah

AU - Gillison, Fiona

AU - Davis, Adrian

AU - Insall, Philip

PY - 2019/5

Y1 - 2019/5

N2 - Background There may be opportunities for working adults to accumulate recommended physical activity levels (≥ 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes throughout the week) during the commute to work. Systematic reviews of interventions to increase active transport indicate that studies are predominantly of poor quality, rely on self-report and lack robust statistical analyses. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost and consequences of a behavioural intervention to increase walking during the commute to work. Design A multicentre, parallel-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial incorporating economic and process evaluations. Physical activity outcomes were measured using accelerometers and GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers at baseline and the 12-month follow-up. Setting Workplaces in seven urban areas in south-west England and south Wales. Participants Employees (n = 654) in 87 workplaces. Interventions Workplace-based Walk to Work promoters were trained to implement a 10-week intervention incorporating key behaviour change techniques. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the daily number of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included MVPA during the commute, overall levels of physical activity and modal shift (from private car to walking). Cost–consequences analysis included employer, employee and health service costs and consequences. Process outcomes included barriers to, and facilitators of, walking during the daily commute. Results There was no evidence of an intervention effect on MVPA at the 12-month follow-up [adjusted difference in means 0.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) –5.3 to 5.9 minutes]. The intervention cost was on average, £181.97 per workplace and £24.19 per participating employee. In comparison with car users [mean 7.3 minutes, standard deviation (SD) 7.6 minutes], walkers (mean 34.3 minutes, SD 18.6 minutes) and public transport users (mean 25.7 minutes, SD 14.0 minutes) accrued substantially higher levels of daily MVPA during the commute. Participants who walked for ≥ 10 minutes during their commute were more likely to have a shorter commute distance (p < 0.001). No access to a car (p < 0.001) and absence of free workplace car parking (p < 0.01) were independently related to walking to work and using public transport. Higher quality-of-life scores were observed for the intervention group in a repeated-measures analysis (mean 0.018, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.036; scores anchored at 0 indicated ‘no capability’ and scores anchored at 1 indicated ‘full capability’). Conclusions Although this research showed that walking to work and using public transport are important contributors to physical activity levels in a working population, the behavioural intervention was insufficient to change travel behaviour. Broader contextual factors, such as length of journey, commuting options and availability of car parking, may influence the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to change travel behaviour. Further analyses of statistical and qualitative data could focus on physical activity and travel mode and the wider determinants of workplace travel behaviour.

AB - Background There may be opportunities for working adults to accumulate recommended physical activity levels (≥ 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes throughout the week) during the commute to work. Systematic reviews of interventions to increase active transport indicate that studies are predominantly of poor quality, rely on self-report and lack robust statistical analyses. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost and consequences of a behavioural intervention to increase walking during the commute to work. Design A multicentre, parallel-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial incorporating economic and process evaluations. Physical activity outcomes were measured using accelerometers and GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers at baseline and the 12-month follow-up. Setting Workplaces in seven urban areas in south-west England and south Wales. Participants Employees (n = 654) in 87 workplaces. Interventions Workplace-based Walk to Work promoters were trained to implement a 10-week intervention incorporating key behaviour change techniques. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the daily number of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included MVPA during the commute, overall levels of physical activity and modal shift (from private car to walking). Cost–consequences analysis included employer, employee and health service costs and consequences. Process outcomes included barriers to, and facilitators of, walking during the daily commute. Results There was no evidence of an intervention effect on MVPA at the 12-month follow-up [adjusted difference in means 0.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) –5.3 to 5.9 minutes]. The intervention cost was on average, £181.97 per workplace and £24.19 per participating employee. In comparison with car users [mean 7.3 minutes, standard deviation (SD) 7.6 minutes], walkers (mean 34.3 minutes, SD 18.6 minutes) and public transport users (mean 25.7 minutes, SD 14.0 minutes) accrued substantially higher levels of daily MVPA during the commute. Participants who walked for ≥ 10 minutes during their commute were more likely to have a shorter commute distance (p < 0.001). No access to a car (p < 0.001) and absence of free workplace car parking (p < 0.01) were independently related to walking to work and using public transport. Higher quality-of-life scores were observed for the intervention group in a repeated-measures analysis (mean 0.018, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.036; scores anchored at 0 indicated ‘no capability’ and scores anchored at 1 indicated ‘full capability’). Conclusions Although this research showed that walking to work and using public transport are important contributors to physical activity levels in a working population, the behavioural intervention was insufficient to change travel behaviour. Broader contextual factors, such as length of journey, commuting options and availability of car parking, may influence the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to change travel behaviour. Further analyses of statistical and qualitative data could focus on physical activity and travel mode and the wider determinants of workplace travel behaviour.

U2 - 10.3310/phr07110

DO - 10.3310/phr07110

M3 - Article

VL - 7

JO - Public Health Research

JF - Public Health Research

SN - 2050-4381

IS - 11

ER -