Aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) and related enzymes are at the heart of debates on the roles of quantum tunneling and protein dynamics in catalysis. The reaction of tryptamine in AADH involves significant quantum tunneling in the rate-limiting proton transfer step, shown by large H/D primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), with unusual temperature dependence. We apply correlated ab initio combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, at levels up to local coupled cluster theory (LCCSD(T)/(aug)-cc-pVTZ), to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for this reaction, which are necessary for quantitative analysis of tunneling contributions and reaction dynamics. Different levels of QM/MM treatment are tested. Multiple pathways are calculated with fully flexible transition state optimization by the climbing-image nudged elastic band method at the density functional QM/MM level. The average LCCSD(T) potential energy barriers to proton transfer are 16.7 and 14.0 kcal/mol for proton transfer to the two carboxylate atoms of the catalytic base, Asp128β. The results show that two similar, but distinct pathways are energetically accessible. These two pathways have different barriers, exothermicity and curvature, and should be considered in analyses of the temperature dependence of reaction and KIEs in AADH and other enzymes. These results provide a benchmark for this prototypical enzyme reaction and will be useful for developing empirical models, and analyzing experimental data, to distinguish between different conceptual models of enzyme catalysis.
Ranaghan, K., Mulholland, A., Harvey, J., Manby, F., Scrutton, N., Senthilkumar, K., Morris, W., Johannissen, L., & Masgrau, L. (2017). Ab Initio QM/MM Modeling of the Rate-Limiting Proton Transfer Step in the Deamination of Tryptamine by Aromatic Amine Dehydrogenase. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 121(42), 9785–9798. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b06892