Adalimumab in refractory cystoid macular edema associated with birdshot chorioretinopathy

Laura R Steeples, Paul Spry, Richard W J Lee, Ester Carreño

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
305 Downloads (Pure)


PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcomes of adalimumab therapy in cases of birdshot chorioretinitis (BCR) with cystoid macular edema (CME) refractory to conventional immunotherapy.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of three BCR patients treated with adalimumab for refractory CME. The main outcome measure was central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography. Any patients treated with local steroids and/or receiving systemic steroids higher than 40 mg prednisolone daily during adalimumab therapy were excluded.

RESULTS: At baseline, all patients were receiving systemic corticosteroids and two second-line immunosuppressive agents. The mean duration of treatment with adalimumab was 31.2 months (range 17.2-52). The mean CST was 327 ± 112.7 μm (mean ± SD) at baseline and 256.2 ± 39.7 μm at 6 months and 235.5 ± 32.5 μm at 12 months. Adalimumab permitted cessation or reduction in the daily dose of oral prednisolone plus withdrawal of a second-line agent in all patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In these patients, adalimumab was effective in the treatment of refractory CME.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1357-1362
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Early online date12 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Adalimumab/administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
  • Chorioretinitis/complications
  • Drug Tolerance
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Macula Lutea/pathology
  • Macular Edema/diagnosis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Visual Acuity


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