Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is major global health care issue as it is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in children. It is a triad of acute kidney injury, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. In recent years, major advances in our understanding of complement-driven inherited rare forms of HUS have been achieved. However, in children 90% of cases of HUS are associated with a Shiga toxin-producing enteric pathogen. The precise pathological mechanisms in this setting are yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this review is to discuss advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying HUS and identify the key questions yet to be answered by the scientific community.
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Thrombotic microangiopathy