Cathy Williams, Stephanie West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION: Amblyopia is commonly associated with squint (strabismus) or refractive errors resulting in different visual inputs to each eye during the sensitive period of visual development (<7-8 years of age). The cumulative incidence is estimated at 2% to 4% in children aged up to 15 years.

METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to detect amblyopia early? What are the effects of medical treatments for amblyopia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS: We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: active vision therapy; glasses alone or with occlusion; or penalisation to treat amblyopia; and screening to detect amblyopia early.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Clinical Evidence
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2011


  • Amblyopia
  • Eyeglasses
  • Humans
  • Refractive Errors
  • Sensory Deprivation
  • Strabismus
  • Visual Acuity
  • Journal Article
  • Review


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