An endogenous distributed model of ordering in serial recall

Simon Farrell, Stephan Lewandowsky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

307 Citations (Scopus)


We introduce a distributed model of memory for serial order, called SOB, that produces ordered serial recall by relying on encoding and retrieval processes that are endogenous to the model. SOB explains the basic shape of the serial position curve, the pattern of errors during recall (including the balance between transpositions, omissions, intrusions, and erroneous repetitions), the effects of list length on the distribution of errors, the overall level of recall and response latency, and the effects of natural language frequency on recall performance. In addition, contrary to several recent suggestions, SOB demonstrates that distribution representations can support, unambiguous recall, selective response suppression, and novelty-sensitive encoding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-79
Number of pages21
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2002

Structured keywords

  • Memory


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