Numerical simulation of multi-bladed lifting rotors in forward flight is considered. The flow-solver presented is multiblock and unsteady, which is essential for forward flight, and also includes multigrid acceleration to reduce run-times. A structured multiblock grid generator specifically for rotor blades has also been developed and is presented here. Previous work has shown that hovering lifting rotor flows are particularly expensive to simulate, since the capture of the vortical wake below the disc requires a long numerical integration time; more than 20 revolutions for an unsteady simulation, or more than 40000 time-steps for a single grid steady simulation. It is demonstrated here that only two or three revolutions are required to obtain a converged solution for forward flight, since the wake is swept downstream. This requires less than 1.5 Ã— the run-time of a steady hovering simulation, for the same grid density around each blade, even though an unsteady simulation is required and the complete disk must be solved rather than one blade as in hover. It is demonstrated that very fine meshes are required to capture the unsteady tip vortex motion, and the effects on blade loading of blade-vortex interaction and rotor shaft inclination are also considered.
|Translated title of the contribution||An unsteady multiblock multigrid scheme for lifting forward flight rotor simulation|
|Pages (from-to)||973 - 984|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids|
|Publication status||Published - May 2004|