This paper presents a simple yet novel two-dimensional modelling approach for approximating the coupling coefficient between neighbouring inductors as a function of co-planar separation and relative angular displacement. The approach employs simple geometric arguments to predict the effective magnetic flux between inductors. Two extreme coil geometry regimes are considered; planar coils (i.e. on printed circuit board), and solenoid coils, each with asymmetric ferrite cores about the central magnetic plane of the inductor. The proposed geometric approximation is used to predict the coupling coefficient between sensors as a function of separation distance and angular displacement and the results are validated against two-dimensional finite element modelling results. The analytical approximations show excellent agreement with the FE analysis, predicting comparable trends with changing separation and angular displacement, enabling best fitting to 2D FE and 3D numerical data with a residual standard deviation of less than 0.5% for the planar coil approximation. The work demonstrates the validity of the analytical approximation for predicting coupling behaviour between neighbouring coils. This has practical uses for the automated estimation of the physical separation between coils, or the curvature of surfaces they are rested or adhered to.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8400309
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

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Structured keywords

  • Engineering Mathematics Research Group


  • Coils
  • Couplings
  • Magnetic cores
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic separation
  • Mathematical models
  • Solenoids


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