STUDY DESIGN: Mechanical and biochemical analyses of cadaveric and surgically removed discs. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fissures in the annulus of degenerated human discs are mechanically and chemically conducive to the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Discogenic back pain is closely associated with fissures in the annulus fibrosus, and with the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. METHODS: Three complementary studies were performed. First, 15 cadaveric discs that contained a major annulus fissure were subjected to 1 kN compression, while a miniature pressure transducer was pulled through the disc to obtain distributions of matrix compressive stress perpendicular to the fissure axis. Second, Safranin O staining was used to evaluate focal loss of proteoglycans from within annulus fissures in 25 surgically removed disc samples. Third, in 21 cadaveric discs, proteoglycans (sulfated glycosaminoglycans [sGAGs]) and water concentration were measured biochemically in disrupted regions of annulus containing 1 or more fissures, and in adjacent intact regions. RESULTS: Reductions in compressive stress within annulus fissures averaged 36% to 46%, and could have been greater at the fissure axis. Stress reductions were greater in degenerated discs, and were inversely related to nucleus pressure (R(2) = 47%; P = 0.005). Safranin O stain intensity indicated that proteoglycan concentration was typically reduced by 40% at a distance of 600 mum from the fissure axis, and the width of the proteoglycan-depleted zone increased with age (P < 0.006; R(2) = 0.29) and with general proteoglycan loss (P < 0.001; R(2) = 0.32). Disrupted regions of annulus contained 36% to 54% less proteoglycans than adjacent intact regions from the same discs, although water content was reduced only slightly. CONCLUSION: Annulus fissures provide a low-pressure microenvironment that allows focal proteoglycan loss, leaving a matrix that is conducive to nerve and blood vessel ingrowth.
|Translated title of the contribution||Annulus fissures are mechanically and chemically conducive to the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels|
|Number of pages||8|
|Early online date||19 Jun 2012|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Oct 2012|
Stefanakis, E., Al-Abbasi, MMS., Harding, I., Pollintine, P., Dolan, P., Tarlton, JF., & Adams, MA. (2012). Annulus fissures are mechanically and chemically conducive to the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. Spine, 37(22), 1883-1891.