Anodal stimulation in two dogs with transvenous permanent bipolar pacemakers

M A Oyama, M J Hezzell, D S Laughlin, C L Thorn, M S Kraus, A R Gelzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
392 Downloads (Pure)


Management of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias such as complete atrioventricular block often involves permanent implantation of a transvenous pacemaker. Both during and after implantation, the operator can telemetrically assess and adjust a variety of electrical parameters associated with the pacemaker function in order to optimize the sensitivity, reliability, and power consumption of the device. Herein, we report an unexpected change in the paced electrocardiographic QRS complex morphology in two dogs undergoing bipolar pacing associated with changes in the pacemaker output amplitude settings first detected during threshold testing. The exclusivity of the electrocardiographic changes solely on pacemaker output settings, consistency between the surface electrocardiogram and ventricular endocardial electrogram, and resolution of this phenomenon when dogs were re-programmed to unipolar pacing is consistent with depolarization of the ventricular myocardium by the anodal electrode of the pacing lead at high pacemaker amplitudes. Anodal stimulation is a potential cause of varying QRS complex morphology witnessed during pacemaker evaluation and interrogation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-404
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Cardiology
Issue number4
Early online date6 Sept 2016
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2016


  • Pacing
  • Electrogram
  • Bradyarrhythmias
  • Electrocardiography


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