Antenatal depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from routine health care contact in Greece

Ioannis Tsakiridis, Themistoklis Dagklis*, Apostolos Mamopoulos, Apostolos Athanasiadis, Rebecca Pearson, Georgios Papazisis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
86 Downloads (Pure)


OBJECTIVES: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures introduced to control it, on mental health, is largely unknown. Research conducted during past epidemics found that pregnant women are more vulnerable psychologically. The aim of this study was to investigate antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms during this pandemic in Greece.

METHODS: All women receiving routine antenatal care, during a three-month period, starting one week after the total lockdown in Greece, in a University department, were asked to fill in two questionnaires, the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).

RESULTS: Overall, 505 women (93.3% of the eligible population) agreed to participate. The prevalence of antenatal depression (EPDS score≥13) in the population of the study was 13.5%. Unplanned pregnancy (OR: 2.447; 95% CI: 1.235-4.846), smoking (OR: 2.268; 95% CI: 1.166-4.411) and antenatal anxiety (OR: 5.074; 95% CI: 2.898-8.883) increased the risk of antenatal depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. State (current)-anxiety affected 34.1% of the participants, whereas Trait (lifetime)-anxiety affected 15.8%. The State-anxiety score (median) was significantly higher than the Trait-anxiety (median) (41 vs. 36; p<0.001), revealing an increase in the levels of anxiety in the pandemic, while there was also a positive linear correlation between the two scales (rho=0.592; p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety, but not depression levels of pregnant women in Greece. Population level interventions to address adverse effects on anxiety status in the initial phases of similar situations may be helpful in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)656-663
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Perinatal Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date16 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

Structured keywords

  • Covid19


  • anxiety
  • COVID-19
  • depression
  • Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
  • pregnancy
  • State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)


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