Anthropogenic Chloroform Emissions from China Drive Changes in Global Emissions

Minde An, Luke Western, Jianxin Hu, Bo Yao, Jens Mühle, Anita l. Ganesan, Ronald g. Prinn, Paul b. Krummel, Ryan Hossaini, Xuekun Fang, Simon O’doherty, Ray f. Weiss, Dickon Young, Matthew Rigby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Emissions of chloroform (CHCl3), a short-lived halogenated substance not currently controlled by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, are offsetting some of the achievements of the Montreal Protocol. In this study, emissions of CHCl3 from China were derived by atmospheric measurement-based “top-down” inverse modelling and a sector-based “bottom-up” inventory method. Top-down CHCl3 emissions grew from 88 (81-93) Gg yr-1 in 2011 to a maximum of 189 (172-205) Gg yr-1 in 2017, followed by a decrease to 125 (118-132) Gg yr-1 in 2018, after which emissions remained relatively constant through 2020. The changes in emissions from China could explain nearly all the global changes during the study period. The CHCl3 emissions in China were dominated by anthropogenic sources, such as by-product emissions during disinfection and leakage from chloromethane industries. Had emissions continued to grow at the rate observed up to 2017, a substantial delay in ozone layer recovery would have occurred. However, this delay will be largely avoided if global CHCl3 emissions remain relatively constant in the future, as they have between 2018 and 2020.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13925-13936
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2019YFC0214500) and the Shanghai B&R Joint Laboratory Project (No. 22230750300). This work has benefited from the technical expertise of and the assistance by the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network, including the Medusa GC/MS system technology, calibrations of CHCl measurements, and network operation, as well as Dr. Martin Vollmer from the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. R.G.P., M.A., J.M., P.B.K., S.O’D., R.F.W., and D.Y. acknowledge AGAGE’s support via NASA grants to MIT (with subawards to Bristol University and CSIRO) and to SIO (including AGAGE calibration). L.M.W. received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 101030750. R.H. is supported by NERC grant NE/V011863/1. The authors acknowledge the support from members of Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group at University of Bristol and thank the U.K. Met Office for the support and licensing for NAME. 3

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


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