Apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, lipoprotein(a) concentration, and coronary artery disease: a mendelian randomisation analysis

Danish Saleheen, Philip C Haycock, Wei Zhao, Asif Rasheed, Adam Taleb, Atif Imran, Shahid Abbas, Faisal Majeed, Saba Akhtar, Nadeem Qamar, Khan Shah Zaman, Zia Yaqoob, Tahir Saghir, Syed Nadeem Hasan Rizvi, Anis Memon, Nadeem Hayyat Mallick, Mohammad Ishaq, Syed Zahed Rasheed, Fazal-ur-Rehman Memon, Khalid MahmoodNaveeduddin Ahmed, Philippe Frossard, Sotirios Tsimikas, Joseph L Witztum, Santica Marcovina, Manjinder Sandhu, Daniel J Rader, John Danesh

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Abstract

Background The lipoprotein(a) pathway is a causal factor in coronary heart disease. We used a genetic approach to distinguish the relevance of two distinct components of this pathway, apolipoprotein(a) isoform size and circulating lipoprotein(a) concentration, to coronary heart disease. Methods In this mendelian randomisation study, we measured lipoprotein(a) concentration and determined apolipoprotein(a) isoform size with a genetic method (kringle IV type 2 [KIV2] repeats in the LPA gene) and a serum-based electrophoretic assay in patients and controls (frequency matched for age and sex) from the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for myocardial infarction per 1-SD difference in either LPA KIV2 repeats or lipoprotein(a) concentration. In a genome-wide analysis of up to 17 503 participants in PROMIS, we identified genetic variants associated with either apolipoprotein(a) isoform size or lipoprotein(a) concentration. Using a mendelian randomisation study design and genetic data on 60 801 patients with coronary heart disease and 123 504 controls from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium, we calculated ORs for myocardial infarction with variants that produced similar differences in either apolipoprotein(a) isoform size in serum or lipoprotein(a) concentration. Finally, we compared phenotypic versus genotypic ORs to estimate whether apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, lipoprotein(a) concentration, or both were causally associated with coronary heart disease. Findings The PROMIS cohort included 9015 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 8629 matched controls. In participants for whom KIV2 repeat and lipoprotein(a) data were available, the OR for myocardial infarction was 0·93 (95% CI 0·90–0·97; p<0·0001) per 1-SD increment in LPA KIV2 repeats after adjustment for lipoprotein(a) concentration and conventional lipid concentrations. The OR for myocardial infarction was 1·10 (1·05–1·14; p<0·0001) per 1-SD increment in lipoprotein(a) concentration, after adjustment for LPA KIV2 repeats and conventional lipids. Genome-wide analysis identified rs2457564 as a variant associated with smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, but not lipoprotein(a) concentration, and rs3777392 as a variant associated with lipoprotein(a) concentration, but not apolipoprotein(a) isoform size. In 60 801 patients with coronary heart disease and 123 504 controls, OR for myocardial infarction was 0·96 (0·94–0·98; p<0·0001) per 1-SD increment in apolipoprotein(a) protein isoform size in serum due to rs2457564, which was directionally concordant with the OR observed in PROMIS for a similar change. The OR for myocardial infarction was 1·27 (1·07–1·50; p=0·007) per 1-SD increment in lipoprotein(a) concentration due to rs3777392, which was directionally concordant with the OR observed for a similar change in PROMIS. Interpretation Human genetic data suggest that both smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoform size and increased lipoprotein(a) concentration are independent and causal risk factors for coronary heart disease. Lipoprotein(a)-lowering interventions could be preferentially effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in individuals with smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoforms. Funding British Heart Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center, Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, and Pfizer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)524-533
Number of pages10
JournalLancet Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume5
Issue number7
Early online date10 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

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