The aim of this study was to determine a sequence of structural changes in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A) and comparing with other imaging modalities.Patients and methods
Patients with a new diagnosis of acute-onset APMPPE referred to a regional specialist centre from October 2015 to October 2016 were included. Multimodal imaging employed on all patients from diagnosis included the following: fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT), and OCT-A. All non-invasive imaging processes were repeated during follow-up.Results
Ten eyes of five patients were included in the study, three males and two females, with a mean age of 26.2 years (range: 21–32) and a mean follow-up of 6.4 months (range: 2.6–13.3). All patients presented with bilateral disease and macular involving lesions. OCT-A imaging of the choriocapillaris was supportive of hypoperfusion at the site of APMPPE lesions during the acute phase of this condition with normalisation of choroidal vasculature during follow-up. Multimodal imaging consistently highlighted four sequential phases from presentation to resolution of active disease.Conclusions
Multimodal imaging in patients with APMPPE in acute and long-term follow-up demonstrates a reversible choroidal hypoperfusion supporting the primary inciting pathology as a choriocapillaritis. The evolution shows resolution of the ischaemia through a defined sequence that results in persistent changes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and outer retina. OCT-A was able to detect preclinical changes and chart resolution at the level of the choriocapillaris.