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Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.
Bibliographical noteAccepted: 15 June 2015
- Brain and Behaviour
- Nutrition and Behaviour
- Expected satiation
- Energy density
Schiöth, H. B., Ferriday, D., Davies, S. R., Benedict, C., Elmståhl, H., Brunstrom, J. M., & Hogenkamp, P. S. (2015). Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake. Nutrients, 7(7), 5088-5097. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075088