Childhood stroke syndromes are an important cause of mortality and morbidity. This paper focuses on the recent advances in arterial ischaemic stroke beyond the neonatal period. Vascular risk factors are identified in the majority of children and guide both acute and longer term treatments, as well as determining prognosis. Contrary to popular belief many children have residual impairments encompassing a wide range of domains. National and international collaborations are facilitating an increase in the understanding of childhood stroke and have the eventual aim of conducting trials of potential therapeutic interventions.