Neurological disease can affect the rate of urine production and bladder storage function, increasing nocturia severity, with additional risks if mobility or cognition is impaired.
To conduct a systematic review (SR) of nocturia in neurological diseases and achieve expert consensus for management in clinics without neurologist input.
Four databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2020. A total of 6262 titles and abstracts were screened and 43 studies were included for full-text screening. Eleven of these met the inclusion criteria and two studies were identified through other sources. The nominal group technique (NGT) was used to develop consensus in panel comprising experts and public representation.
Thirteen studies (seven in Parkinson’s disease, five in multiple sclerosis) were included, all undertaken in secondary care. Neurological disease severity was incompletely described, and nocturia severity was generally measured subjectively. NGT consensus supported basic neurological assessment, and the use of bladder diaries where neurological impairment permits. Treatments include pelvic-floor muscle training, review of medications, risk mitigation, improving bowel function, therapy for overactive bladder syndrome (if urgency is reported in association with nocturia episodes), treatment of postvoid residual and desmopressin according to licence. Measures to improve mobility and mitigate risk when using the toilet overnight should be considered. Multifactorial issues such as obstructive sleep apnoea and hypoventilation must be considered.
Nocturia in neurological disease is complex and lacks a robust evidence base, with very little research done in the primary care context. Guidance should be pragmatic, with reduction of risk a key requirement, until a multidisciplinary evidence base can be developed.
People with a neurological disease can suffer severe sleep disturbance because of the need to pass urine several times overnight (called nocturia). We looked at published research and found very little information to help general practitioners in managing this condition. We assembled a group of experts to develop practical approaches for assessing and treating nocturia in neurological disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding/Support and role of the sponsor: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) programme (grant reference number NIHR RfPB PB-PG-1217-20034). The sponsor played no direct role in the study. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.
© 2021 European Association of Urology
- Nominal group technique
- Lower urinary tract symptoms
- Systematic review