Characteristics of the localities in which Jews lived have received little attention in research on Holocaust-related deaths. We examined associations between locality-level and individual-level characteristics with the odds of being deported by applying multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models to data for about 118,000 Jews in 102 Dutch municipalities listed in 1941–1942 and linked to postwar victims and returnees lists. We examined associations between individual-level characteristics and risk of death of deported Jews in multilevel mixed-effects Weibull regression models. Locality-level characteristics, per standard deviation increase, associated with higher deportation chance were more collaborating policemen (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12), strongest segregation mentality (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.50), and less employment in agriculture (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.01). Higher percentage of Catholics (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94) and stronger electoral support for the National Socialist Movement (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97) unexpectedly reduced deportation chance. Individual-level characteristics associated with lower deportation chance were female sex, ages 0–5 or 15–30 years, and being immigrants, intermarried, or converts to Christianity. Deported males aged 15–30 years had reduced risk of death between July 1942 and July 1943 but increased risk thereafter, consistent with young adult men being selected for work after deportation but this selection not offering long-term protection. Holocaust survival chances were influenced by both locality-level and individual-level characteristics.
- Holocaust survival
- local-level characteristics
- multilevel model
Tammes, P. (2019). Associating Locality-Level Characteristics With Surviving the Holocaust: A Multilevel Approach to the Odds of Being Deported and to Risk of Death Among Jews Living in Dutch Municipalities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 188(5), 896-906. [kwz015]. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz015