Association of diabetes mellitus with prostate cancer: nested case-control study (Prostate testing for cancer and treatment study)

Emma L Turner, Janet Athene Lane, Jenny L Donovan, Michael J Davis, Chris Metcalfe, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Richard M Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Observational studies suggest that diabetes is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, but few are population based or have investigated associations with cancer stage or duration of diabetes. We report a case-control study nested within the population-based Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study ISRCTN20141297. Men aged 50-69 years based around 9 UK cities were invited for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test between June 2002 and November 2006. Amongst 55,215 PSA-tested men, 1,966 had histologically confirmed prostate cancer; of these, 1,422 (72.3%) completed the questionnaire and 1,291 (65.7%) had complete data for analysis. We randomly selected 6,479 age- (within 5 years) and general practice-matched controls. The prevalence of diabetes was 89/1,291 (6.9%) in cases and 555/6,479 (8.6%) in controls. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.99). There was weak evidence that the inverse association was greater for well- versus poorly differentiated cancers (p = 0.07). The magnitude of the inverse association did not change with increasing duration of diabetes (p for trend = 0.95). Diabetes is associated with a decreased risk of PSA-detected prostate cancer. These data add to the evidence of the association of diabetes with prostate cancer in the PSA era.
Translated title of the contributionAssociation of diabetes mellitus with prostate cancer in a large case-control study nested in the population-based PSA testing phase of the ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) trial including an updated meta-analysis
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)440 - 446
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2011

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2010 UICC.

Structured keywords

  • BTC (Bristol Trials Centre)
  • Centre for Surgical Research


  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Time Factors


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