Associations of circulating retinol, vitamin E, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with prostate cancer diagnosis, stage, and grade

Rebecca Gilbert*, Chris Metcalfe, William D. Fraser, Jenny Donovan, Freddie Hamdy, David E. Neal, J. Athene Lane, Richard M. Martin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Some epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E, and vitamin D (total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin, 1,25(OH)(2)D) are protective against prostate cancer. However, the evidence is not conclusive, with positive and null associations reported for all three vitamins. Limitations of previous studies include small sample size, lack of population controls, and reliance on self-reported dietary intake. Few studies have explored the interactions of circulating 25(OH)D with 1,25(OH)(2)D or retinol, which are biologically plausible interactions.

We investigated the associations of circulating retinol, vitamin E, and 1,25(OH)(2)D with PSA-detected prostate cancer risk, stage, and grade in a case-control study nested within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. We investigated the possibility of an interaction between 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D and whether the previously observed association between 25(OH)D and prostate cancer may be modified by retinol levels.

We included 1,433 prostate cancer cases and 1,433 healthy controls. There was no evidence of associations of circulating retinol, vitamin E, or 1,25(OH)(2)D with overall prostate cancer risk, stage (advanced vs localized), or Gleason grade (high- (a parts per thousand yen7) vs low (<7) grade). There was no evidence of an interaction of 1,25(OH)(2)D and 25(OH)D with prostate cancer risk, stage, or grade (p interaction a parts per thousand yen 0.24). The association between 25(OH)D and prostate cancer did not differ by retinol level (p interaction = 0.34).

We found no evidence that retinol, vitamin E, or 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations were associated with overall prostate cancer risk or more aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes. There was no evidence of an interaction between 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D or retinol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1865-1873
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume23
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

Structured keywords

  • BTC (Bristol Trials Centre)
  • Centre for Surgical Research

Keywords

  • Prostate cancer
  • Vitamin D
  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamn D
  • Retinol
  • Vitamin E
  • PREVENTION TRIAL SELECT
  • SERUM RETINOL
  • RISK
  • NUTRITION
  • SELENIUM
  • MEN

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