Astrocytes and brain hypoxia

Nephtali Marina, Vitaliy Kasymov, Gareth L. Ackland, Sergey Kasparov, Alexander V. Gourine*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in a book

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Astrocytes provide the structural and functional interface between the cerebral circulation and neuronal networks. They enwrap all intracerebral arterioles and capillaries, control the fl ux of nutrients as well as the ionic and metabolic environment of the neuropil. Astrocytes have the ability to adjust cerebral blood flow to maintain constant PO2 and PCO2 of the brain parenchyma. Release of ATP in the brainstem, presumably by local astrocytes, helps to maintain breathing and counteract hypoxia-induced depression of the respiratory network. Astrocytes also appear to be involved in mediating hypoxia-evoked changes in blood–brain barrier permeability, brain infl ammation, and neuroprotection against ischaemic injury. Thus, astrocytes appear to play a fundamental role in supporting neuronal function not only in normal conditions but also in pathophysiological states when supply of oxygen to the brain is compromised.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer, New York, NY
Pages201-207
Number of pages7
Volume903
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Volume903
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019

Keywords

  • Adenosine
  • Astrocytes
  • ATP
  • Breathing
  • Glutamate
  • Hypoxia
  • Prostaglandins
  • Vasodilation

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