Augmented gut hormone response to feeding in older adults exhibiting low appetite

Aygul Dagbasi, Jordan Warner, Victoria Catterall, Kieran Smith, Bernadette M Carroll, Daniel R Crabtree, Gary Frost, Adrian Holliday

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

Abstract

Age-related changes in gut hormones may play a role in anorexia of ageing. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 in older adults exhibiting an anorexia of ageing phenotype. Thirteen older adults with healthy appetite (OA-HA; 8f, 75±7 years, 26.0±3.2 kg·m-2), fifteen older adults with low appetite (OA-LA; 10f, 72±7 years, 23.6±3.1 kg·m-2), and twelve young adults (YA; 6f, 22±2 years, 24.4±2.0 kg·m-2) completed the study. Healthy appetite and low appetite were determined based on BMI, habitual energy intake, self-reported appetite, and laboratory-assessed ad libitum lunch intake. Participants provided a fasted measure of subjective appetite and blood sample (0 minutes) before consuming a standardised breakfast (450 kcal). Appetite was measured and blood samples were drawn throughout a 240-minute rest period. At 240 minutes, an ad libitum lunch meal was consumed. Relative intake at lunch (expressed as percentage of estimated total energy requirement) was lower for OA-LA (19.8±7.7%) than YA (41.5±9.2%, p<0.001) and OA-HA (37.3±10.0%, p<0.001). Ghrelin suppression was greater for OA-LA (net AUC, -78719±74788 pg·mL-1·240min-1) than both YA (-23899±27733 pg·mL-1·240min-1, p=0.016) and OA-HA (-21144±31161 pg·mL-1·240min-1, p=0.009). There were trends for higher GLP-1 concentrations in OA-LA compared with YA at 90 minutes (8.85±10.4 pM vs. 1.88±4.63 pM, p=0.073) and 180 minutes (5.00±4.71 pM vs. 1.07±2.83 pM, p=0.065). There was a trend for a greater PYY response for OA-LA compared with OA-HA (net AUC p=0.062). "Anorexigenic response score" - a composite score of gut hormone responses to feeding - showed greater anorexigenic response in OA-LA, compared with YA and OA-HA. No differences were seen in subjective appetite. These observations suggest augmented anorexigenic responses of gut hormones to feeding may be causal mechanisms of anorexia of ageing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107415
JournalAppetite
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 May 2024

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Copyright © 2024. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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