Autonomous Cars: Research Results, Issues, and Future Challenges

Rasheed Hussain*, Sherali Zeadally

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

344 Citations (Scopus)


Throughout the last century, the automobile industry achieved remarkable milestones in manufacturing reliable, safe, and affordable vehicles. Because of significant recent advances in computation and communication technologies, autonomous cars are becoming a reality. Already autonomous car prototype models have covered millions of miles in test driving. Leading technical companies and car manufacturers have invested a staggering amount of resources in autonomous car technology, as they prepare for autonomous cars' full commercialization in the coming years. However, to achieve this goal, several technical and nontechnical issues remain: software complexity, real-time data analytics, and testing and verification are among the greater technical challenges; and consumer stimulation, insurance management, and ethical/moral concerns rank high among the nontechnical issues. Tackling these challenges requires thoughtful solutions that satisfy consumers, industry, and governmental requirements, regulations, and policies. Thus, here we present a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art results for autonomous car technology. We discuss current issues that hinder autonomous cars' development and deployment on a large scale. We also highlight autonomous car applications that will benefit consumers and many other sectors. Finally, to enable cost-effective, safe, and efficient autonomous cars, we discuss several challenges that must be addressed (and provide helpful suggestions for adoption) by designers, implementers, policymakers, regulatory organizations, and car manufacturers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8457076
Pages (from-to)1275-1313
Number of pages39
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1998-2012 IEEE.


  • Autonomous cars
  • connected cars
  • driverless cars
  • policy
  • privacy
  • security
  • simulation


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