Behaviour and design of high strength steel homogeneous and hybrid welded I-section beams

Yufei Zhu, Xiang Yun*, Leroy Gardner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The behaviour and design of high strength steel (HSS) beams are addressed in the present study. Six in-plane three-point bending tests on three different welded I-sections − two homogeneous S690 steel welded I-sections and one hybrid welded I-section with S690 steel flanges and an S355 steel web, were first conducted. The beam tests were carried out in major axis bending and a bespoke restraint system was designed and employed in the test programme to prevent lateral-torsional buckling. Following the experimental investigation, a thorough finite element (FE) modelling programme was performed, which included a validation study confirming the accuracy of the developed FE models in replicating the flexural behaviour of HSS welded I-section beams, and a parametric study generating additional FE data on HSS welded I-section beams over a broader range of cross-sectional slendernesses, steel grades and loading configurations. The test results obtained in the present study and collected from the literature, together with the generated FE data from the parametric study, were used to evaluate the suitability of the current Eurocode 3 cross-section slenderness limits for HSS homogeneous and hybrid welded I-sections in bending. It is shown that the current Eurocode Class 2 and Class 3 slenderness limits are suitable for the classification of the outstand flange (in compression) and internal web (in bending) elements of both HSS homogeneous and hybrid welded I-sections subjected to major axis bending, while stricter Class 1 slenderness limits are considered necessary to achieve sufficient rotation capacity for plastic design. The findings from the present study indicate that plastic design can be used for HSS structures, provided the proposed stricter Class 1 slenderness limits are employed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115275
JournalEngineering Structures
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)


  • Bending tests
  • Cross-section classification
  • Finite element modelling
  • High strength steel (HSS)
  • Hybrid section
  • Rotation capacity
  • Welded I-section


Dive into the research topics of 'Behaviour and design of high strength steel homogeneous and hybrid welded I-section beams'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this