A novel autonomous free-fall lander vehicle, with a capability down to 6000 m, was deployed off Cape Verde for studies on bioluminescence in the deep sea. The system was equipped with a high-sensitivity Intensified Silicon Intensified Target (ISIT) video camera, a programmable control-recording unit and an acoustic current meter with depth and temperature sensors. The ISIT lander was used in three modes: (1) free falling at 34 m min−1, with the camera looking downwards at a mesh screen, recording impacts of luminescent organisms to obtain a vertical profile down to the abyssal sea floor, sampling at >100 l s−1; (2) rotating, with the lander on the sea floor and the camera orienting to the bottom current using a servo-controlled turntable, impacts of luminescent organisms carried by the bottom current onto a mesh screen mounted 0.5 m in front of the camera were recorded to estimate abundance in the benthic boundary layer; (3) baited, with the camera focused on a bait placed on the sea floor. Profiles recorded abundance of luminescent organisms as 26.7 m−3 at 500–999 m depth, decreasing to 1.6 m−3 at 2000–2499 m and 0.5 m−3 between 2500 m and the sea floor at 4046 m, with no further detectable significant change with depth. Rotator measurements at a 0.5 m height above the sea floor gave a mean abundance of 0.47 m−3 in the benthic boundary layer at 4046 m and of 2.04 m−3 at 3200 m. Thirty five minutes after the bait was placed on the sea floor at 3200 m, bioluminescent fauna apparently arrived at the bait and produced luminescent displays at a rate of 2 min−1. Moving, flashing light sources were observed and luminescent material was released into the bottom current.
|Translated title of the contribution||Bioluminescence in deep sea: Free-fall lander observations in the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Verde|
|Pages (from-to)||1272 - 1283|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2006|