In this paper, we discuss in detail the performance of different blind phase noise estimation schemes for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing transmissions. We first derive a general model of such systems with phase noise. Based on this model, the phase cycle slip probability in blind phase noise estimation is calculated. For blind phase tracking, we present and discuss the implementation of feedback loop and digital phase tracking. We then analyze in detail the performance of a decision-direct-free blind scheme, in which only three test phases are required for phase noise compensation. We show that the decision-direct-free blind scheme is transparent to QAM formats, and can provide a similar performance to the conventional blind phase search employing 16 test phases. We also propose two novel cost functions to further reduce the complexity of this scheme.
- orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
- phase estimation
- phase noise