Background: Childhood leukaemia survivors treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and total body irradiation (HSCT-TBI) have multiple risk factors for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and growth failure; hence, BMD assessment must take body size into consideration. This study aimed to evaluate size-corrected BMD in leukaemia survivors treated with and without HSCT-TBI. Methods: Childhood leukaemia survivors treated with HSCT-TBI (n = 35), aged 17.3 (10.5-20.9) years, were compared with those treated with chemotherapy only, (n = 16) aged 18.5 (16.1-20.9) years, and population references. Outcome measures included anthropometric measurements and BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD was corrected for size as bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Statistical analysis was performed by 1- and 2-sample t tests as well as regression analysis (5% significance). Results: HSCT-TBI survivors were lighter and shorter with reduced spinal heights compared with chemotherapy-only subjects and population references. Compared with population references, HSCT-TBI survivors showed lower BMD standard deviation scores (SDS) (p = 0.008), but no difference in BMAD-SDS, and chemotherapy-only survivors showed no differences in neither BMD-SDS nor BMAD-SDS. All HSCT-TBI participants with BMD-SDS <-2 had BMAD-SDS >-2. BMAD-SDS was negatively associated with age (r = -0.38, p = 0.029) in HSCT-TBI survivors. Conclusions: Size-corrected BMD are normal in HSCT-TBI survivors in young adulthood, but may reduce overtime. BMD measurements should be corrected for size in these patients to be clinically meaningful.
- Bone mineral density
- Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Long-term survivors
- Total body irradiation