Bounded dam-break flows with tailwaters

Alexander J N Goater, Andrew J. Hogg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The gravitationally driven collapse of a reservoir into an initially stationary layer of fluid, termed the tailwater, is studied using the nonlinear shallow water equations. The motion is tackled using the hodograph transformation of the governing equation which allows the solutions for velocity and depth of the shallow flowing layer to be constructed by analytical techniques. The front of the flow emerges as a bore across which the depth of the fluid jumps discontinuously to the tailwater depth. The speed of the front is initially constant, but progressively slows once the finite extent of the reservoir begins to influence the motion. There then emerges a variety of phenomena depending upon the depth of the tailwater relative to the initial depth of the reservoir. Provided that the tailwater is sufficiently deep, a region of quiescent fluid emerges adjacent to the rear wall of the reservoir, followed by a region within which the velocity is negative. Also it is shown that for non-vanishing tailwater depths, continuous solutions for the velocity and height of the flowing layer breakdown after a sufficient period and develop an interior bore, the location and time of inception of which are calculated directly from quasi-analytical solutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-186
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2011


  • geophysical and geological flows
  • hydraulics
  • shallow water flows
  • waves/free-surface flows


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