Bundle Theory with Kinds

Markku Keinänen, Tuomas E. Tahko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
86 Downloads (Pure)


Is it possible to get by with just one ontological category? We evaluate L.A. Paul's attempt to do so: the mereological bundle theory. The upshot is that Paul's attempt to construct a one category ontology may be challenged with some of her own arguments. In the positive part of the paper we outline a two category ontology with property universals and kind universals. We will also examine Paul's arguments against a version of universal bundle theory that takes spatiotemporal co-location instead of compresence or coinstantiation as the feature by which we can identify genuine bundles. We compare this novel theory, bundle theory with kinds, and Paul's mereological bundle theory and apply them to a case study concerning entangled fermions and co-located bosons.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberpqz021
Pages (from-to)838-857
Number of pages20
JournalThe Philosophical Quarterly
Issue number277
Early online date10 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • bundle theory
  • categories
  • formal ontology
  • kind universals
  • natural kinds
  • universals


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