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Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves

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Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. / Depoorter, Mathieu A; Bamber, Jonathan L; Griggs, Jennifer A; Lenaerts, JTM; Ligtenberg, SRM; Van den Broeke, M; Moholdt, G.

In: Nature, Vol. 502, No. 7469, 03.10.2013, p. 89-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Depoorter, MA, Bamber, JL, Griggs, JA, Lenaerts, JTM, Ligtenberg, SRM, Van den Broeke, M & Moholdt, G 2013, 'Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves', Nature, vol. 502, no. 7469, pp. 89-92. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12567

APA

Depoorter, M. A., Bamber, J. L., Griggs, J. A., Lenaerts, JTM., Ligtenberg, SRM., Van den Broeke, M., & Moholdt, G. (2013). Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. Nature, 502(7469), 89-92. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12567

Vancouver

Depoorter MA, Bamber JL, Griggs JA, Lenaerts JTM, Ligtenberg SRM, Van den Broeke M et al. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. Nature. 2013 Oct 3;502(7469):89-92. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12567

Author

Depoorter, Mathieu A ; Bamber, Jonathan L ; Griggs, Jennifer A ; Lenaerts, JTM ; Ligtenberg, SRM ; Van den Broeke, M ; Moholdt, G. / Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. In: Nature. 2013 ; Vol. 502, No. 7469. pp. 89-92.

Bibtex

@article{90b48db895ee4a78b436aafdbc5aa841,
title = "Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves",
abstract = "Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year(1,2). More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front(3-5). So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates(6) and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 +/- 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 +/- 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking(1,2,7). In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering(8) and enhanced discharge(9). We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.",
keywords = "SOUTHERN-OCEAN, MASS BALANCE, SEA, SHEET, BENEATH, GREENLAND, IRON, FLOW",
author = "Depoorter, {Mathieu A} and Bamber, {Jonathan L} and Griggs, {Jennifer A} and JTM Lenaerts and SRM Ligtenberg and {Van den Broeke}, M and G Moholdt",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1038/nature12567",
language = "English",
volume = "502",
pages = "89--92",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Springer Nature",
number = "7469",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves

AU - Depoorter, Mathieu A

AU - Bamber, Jonathan L

AU - Griggs, Jennifer A

AU - Lenaerts, JTM

AU - Ligtenberg, SRM

AU - Van den Broeke, M

AU - Moholdt, G

PY - 2013/10/3

Y1 - 2013/10/3

N2 - Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year(1,2). More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front(3-5). So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates(6) and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 +/- 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 +/- 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking(1,2,7). In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering(8) and enhanced discharge(9). We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

AB - Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year(1,2). More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front(3-5). So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates(6) and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 +/- 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 +/- 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking(1,2,7). In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering(8) and enhanced discharge(9). We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

KW - SOUTHERN-OCEAN

KW - MASS BALANCE

KW - SEA

KW - SHEET

KW - BENEATH

KW - GREENLAND

KW - IRON

KW - FLOW

U2 - 10.1038/nature12567

DO - 10.1038/nature12567

M3 - Article

C2 - 24037377

VL - 502

SP - 89

EP - 92

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7469

ER -