Canine bronchomalacia (BM) is characterized by weakness leading to collapse of the bronchial wall. A prospective study of 18 affected dogs (age range: 1-15 years) was undertaken to characterize the clinicopathological and histological features of BM. Poodles and Yorkshire terriers were commonly affected. Half of the dogs were overweight or obese. The clinical presentation was a mild, wheezing, chronic cough and pulmonary crackles were heard in 28% of the dogs. Compatible radiographic changes were present in 61% of the dogs. Using bronchoscopy, both lungs were affected in half of the animals, whereas in the others the disease appeared to affect predominantly the left lung. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and biopsies of bronchial mucosa revealed pure or mixed neutrophilic inflammation. Underlying infectious bronchitis was considered possible in 56% of the dogs. It was concluded that canine BM may present as an isolated clinical entity associated with infection and/or inflammation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.